EFF v. NSA, ODNI - Vulnerabilities FOIA
A zero-day is a previously unknown security vulnerability in software or online services that a researcher has discovered, but the developers have not yet had a chance to patch. A thriving market has emerged for these zero-days; in some cases governments—including the United States—will purchase these vulnerabilities, which they can use to gain access to targets' computers.
In April 2014, Bloomberg News published a story alleging that the NSA had secretly exploited the "Heartbleed" bug in the OpenSSL cryptographic library for at least two years before the public learned of the devastating vulnerability. The government strongly denied the report, claiming it had a developed a new "Vulnerability Equities Process" (VEP) for deciding when to share vulnerabilities with companies and the public. The White House's cybersecurity coordinator further described in a blog post that the government had "established principles to guide agency decision-making" including "a disciplined, rigorous and high-level decision-making process for vulnerability disclosure." But the substance of those principles has not been shared with the public.
EFF filed a FOIA request for records related to these processes on May 6, 2014, and then filed suit against ODNI and NSA on July 1, 2014 to force disclosure of relevant documents. The government has agreed to release documents related to the VEP on an ongoing basis. The documents released so far are available on this page.