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EFFector - Volume 8, Issue 13 - ALERT: Act Now to Oppose Comm. Decency Act in House Telecom Bill


EFFector - Volume 8, Issue 13 - ALERT: Act Now to Oppose Comm. Decency Act in House Telecom Bill

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EFFector Online Volume 08 No. 13      July 21, 1995
A Publication of the Electronic Frontier Foundation        ISSN 1062-9424


ALERT: Act Now to Oppose Comm. Decency Act in House Telecom Bill
  The Latest News
  What You Can Do Now
  Chronology of the CDA
  For More Information
  List Of Participating Organizations
  List of the House of Representatives
EFF Analysis of the "Anti-Electronic Racketeering Act of 1995" (S.974)
Sen. Grassley's Statement to the Senate on S.974
The Anti-Electronic Racketeering Act of 1995, Senate Bill S.974
EFF and Others Thank 16 Senators for Voting Against the CDA
Calendar of Events (major update)
Quote of the Day
What YOU Can Do

* See or, /pub/Alerts/ for more
information on current EFF activities and online activism alerts! *


Subject: ALERT: Act Now to Oppose Comm. Decency Act in House Telecom Bill


	Update: -Latest News: House will vote on net censorship in July
		-What You Can Do Now
			 -Find out your Representative's position
			  You have a right to know!

			   July 14, 1995


      Distributed by the Voters Telecommunications Watch (


	The Latest News
	What You Can Do Now
	Chronology of the CDA
        For More Information
        List Of Participating Organizations
	List of the House of Representatives



In the House, the Comm. Decency Act is not a part of the fast-moving
Telecommunications Reform Bill, *yet*. Althouth the Leahy/Klink alternative
is currently part of the telecomm bill, supporters of the Exon bill have
pledged to *remove* the Leahy/Klink bill and insert the Communications 
Decency Act in its place. 

We need to gear up to oppose the Communications Decency Act in the

The Leahy/Klink study would direct the Department of Justice (DOJ) to
determine whether current obscenity laws apply to the Internet and if
law enforcement can use them to prosecute people trafficking in obscene
material or child pornography.  (Trafficking in obscene material and
child pornography are not protected by the US Constitution.)

Of course, the answer to these questions is yes, and the DOJ said as
much in a letter to Senator Leahy on May 3, 1995 to Sen. Leahy (D-VT).

Currently, Representatives Cox and Wyden have introduced a bill (HR
1978, the Internet Freedom and Family Empowerment Act) that would
remove disincentives to implementing parental control of online content
and *prohibit* the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) from
regulating expression on the Internet.

Although many are concerned that this bill is not "all there", many
civil liberties organizations (ACLU, CDT, EFF, EPIC, & PFAW to name a
few) are contributing their legal and net-expertise to examining the
bill and making sure it does the right thing.



1. Familiarize yourself with the Communications Decency Act FAQ,
   available either by World Wide Web at
   (URL:, gopher at, or
   via email by sending mail to with "send cdafaq" in the
   SUBJECT line. (not the body of the message)

2. Call your Representative (there is a list attached below) and ask them
   these questions.  The aim here is to get his or her take on net
   censorship.  Here's the way a sample conversation might take place:

   First, figure out who your Rep is.  (see the list of phone numbers below)
   (Y=You, S=Rep's Staffer)

   	S:Rep. Snodgrass's office, may I help you?

   	Y:Hi, I'm a constituent and I'd like to know what Mr. Snodgrass's
	  position is on the issue of objectionable material on online
	  networks such as the Internet.

	  Does Mr. Snodgrass favor parental control over what kids see or
	  governmental censorship?

	S:Let me transfer you to the staffer that handles that, hold
	S:Hi, this is Jane Jingle.  May I help you?

   You'll probably get one of three answers, either:

	S:I believe that parents should have control over the information
	  their children see, not government regulators.
	Y:Thanks.  As a user of computer networks and a constituent, I
	  agree with Mr. Snodgrass and hope he will vote this way when
	  the relevant bills come to the floor. 

	S:Mr. Snodgrass doesn't have an opinion on this issue yet.
	Y:Thanks.  As a user of computer networks and a constituent, I
	  support parental control instead of government censorship.  I
	  hope Mr. Snodgrass will vote this way when the relevant bills
	  come to the floor. 

   or, finally,

	S:Mr. Snodgrass believes that porn on the net should be made
	  illegal because it's a really big problem.

	Y:As a user of computer networks and constituent, I support
	  parental control instead of government censorship.  I hope
	  Mr.  Snodgrass is aware that trafficking in obscene material
	  is already illegal for online systems.

	  I also hope that Mr. Snodgrass is aware that there are a
	  number of technologies already on the market that allow
	  parents to control content on computer networks. I strongly
	  believe that Mr. Snodgrass and Congress shold trust parents
	  to make these choices.

   Take the response you get and mail it to  We'll be
   totalling up the responses and using them to help coordinate the
   pressure before a House vote.  Whether you are happy or unhappy with
   your legislator's response, we strongly encourage you to also post
   it and discuss it in your local geographical newsgroups.  Educate
   your fellow voters!

3. Encourage your bulletin board system or Internet service provider to
   reproduce the following short alert either in their Message Of The Day
   or in a quick bulletin to the other users.

	7/12/95: The Communications Decency Act (CDA) is in the House and
	discussion is heating up.  Volunteers are needed to call their
	Representatives and get their rep's positions on net censorship.
	To get more info, send mail to with "send alert" in 
	the subject line, gopher -p 1/vtw/exon/alert, or

4. Congratulate yourself!  You've not only told your rep what you think,
   but you've also helped the Coalition learn more about where your rep
   stands on this issue!



No more actions have been scheduled as of July 12, 1995.

Jun 30, '95	Cox and Wyden introduce the "Internet Freedom and Family
		Empowerment Act" (HR 1978) as an alternative to the CDA.
Jun 21, '95     Several prominent House members publicly announce their
                opposition to the CDA, including Rep. Newt Gingrich (R-GA),
                Rep. Chris Cox (R-CA), and Rep. Ron Wyden (D-OR).
Jun 14, '95     The Senate passes the CDA as attached to the Telecomm
                reform bill (S 652) by a vote of 84-16.  The Leahy bill
                (S 714) is not passed.
May 24, '95     The House Telecomm Reform bill (HR 1555) leaves committee
                in the House with the Leahy alternative attached to it,
                thanks to Rep. Ron Klink of (D-PA).  The Communications
                Decency Act is not attached to it.
Apr  7, '95     Sen. Leahy (D-VT) introduces S.714, an alternative to
                the Exon/Gorton bill, which commissions the Dept. of
                Justice to study the problem to see if additional legislation
                (such as the CDA) is necessary.
Mar 23, '95     S314 amended and attached to the telecommunications reform
                bill by Sen. Gorton (R-WA).  Language provides some provider
                protection, but continues to infringe upon email privacy
                and free speech.
Feb 21, '95     HR1004 referred to the House Commerce and Judiciary committees
Feb 21, '95     HR1004 introduced by Rep. Johnson (D-SD)
Feb  1, '95     S314 referred to the Senate Commerce committee
Feb  1, '95     S314 introduced by Sen. Exon (D-NE) and Gorton (R-WA).



Web Sites

FTP Archives 

Gopher Archives:

Email: (put "send alert" in the subject line for the latest
		alert, or "send cdafaq" for the CDA FAQ) (General CDA information) (Current status of the CDA)



In order to use the net more effectively, several organizations have
joined forces on a single Congressional net campaign to stop the
Communications Decency Act.

American Civil Liberties Union * American Communication Association *
American Council for the Arts * Arts & Technology Society * Association
of Alternative Newsweeklies * biancaTroll productions * Californians
Against Censorship Together * Center For Democracy And Technology *
Centre for Democratic Communications * Center for Public Representation
* Citizen's Voice - New Zealand * Cloud 9 Internet *Computer
Communicators Association * Computel Network Services * Computer
Professionals for Social Responsibility * Cross Connection *
Cyber-Rights Campaign * CyberQueer Lounge * Dutch Digital Citizens'
Movement * ECHO Communications Group, Inc. * Electronic Frontier Canada
* Electronic Frontier Foundation * Electronic Frontier Foundation -
Austin * Electronic Frontiers Australia * Electronic Frontiers Houston
* Electronic Frontiers New Hampshire * Electronic Privacy Information
Center * Feminists For Free Expression * First Amendment Teach-In *
Florida Coalition Against Censorship * FranceCom, Inc. Web Advertising
Services * Friendly Anti-Censorship Taskforce for Students * Hands
Off!  The Net * Human Rights Watch * Inland Book Company * Inner Circle
Technologies, Inc. * Inst. for Global Communications * Internet
On-Ramp, Inc. * Joint Artists' and Music Promotions Political Action
Committee * The Libertarian Party * Marijuana Policy Project *
Metropolitan Data Networks Ltd. * MindVox * National Bicycle Greenway *
National Campaign for Freedom of Expression * National Coalition
Against Censorship * National Gay and Lesbian Task Force * National
Public Telecomputing Network * National Writers Union * Oregon Coast
RISC * Panix Public Access Internet * People for the American Way *
Republican Liberty Caucus * Rock Out Censorship * Society for
Electronic Access * The Thing International BBS Network * The WELL *
Voters Telecommunications Watch

(Note: All 'Electronic Frontier' organizations are independent entities,
 not EFF chapters or divisions.)



#     D ST Name (Party)			  Phone		   Fax

      0 AK Young, Don (R)                 1-202-225-5765   1-202-225-5765
      1 AL Callahan, H. L. (R)            1-202-225-4931   1-202-225-0562
      2 AL Everett, Terry (R)             1-202-225-2901   na
      3 AL Browder, Glen (D)              1-202-225-3261   1-202-225-9020
      4 AL Bevill, Thomas (D)             1-202-225-4876   1-202-225-0842
      5 AL Cramer Jr, Robert E. (D)       1-202-225-4801   1-202-225-4392
      6 AL Bachus, Spencer (R)            1-202-225-4921   1-202-225-2082
      7 AL Hilliard, Earl F. (D)          1-202-225-2665   1-202-226-0772
        AQ Faleomavaega, Eni F.H. (D)     1-202-225-8577   1-202-225-8757
      1 AR Lambert-Lincoln, Blanche (D)   1-202-225-4076   1-202-225-4654
      2 AR Thornton, Raymond (D)          1-202-225-2506   1-202-225-9273
      3 AR Hutchinson, Tim (R)            1-202-225-4301   1-202-226-1163
      4 AR Dickey, Jay  (R)               1-202-225-3772   1-202-225-8646
      1 AZ Salmon, Matthew (R)            1-202-225-2635   1-202-225-3405
      2 AZ Pastor, Ed (D)                 1-202-225-4065
      3 AZ Stump, Robert (R)              1-202-225-4576   1-202-225-6328
      4 AZ Shadegg, John (R)              1-202-225-3361   1-202-225-3462
      5 AZ Kolbe, James T. (R)            1-202-225-2542   1-202-225-0378
      6 AZ Hayworth, John (R)             1-202-225-2190   1-202-225-8819
      1 CA Riggs, Frank (R)               1-202-225-3311   1-202-225-7710
      2 CA Herger, Walter W. (R)          1-202-225-3076   1-202-225-1609
      3 CA Fazio, Vic (D)                 1-202-225-5716   1-202-225-0354
      4 CA Doolittle, John T. (R)         1-202-225-2511   1-202-225-5444
      5 CA Matsui, Robert T. (D)          1-202-225-7163   1-202-225-0566
      6 CA Woolsey, Lynn (D)              1-202-225-5161   1-202-225-5163
      7 CA Miller, George  (D)            1-202-225-2095   1-202-225-5609
      8 CA Pelosi, Nancy (D)              1-202-225-4965   1-202-225-8259
      9 CA Dellums, Ronald V. (D)         1-202-225-2661   1-202-225-9817
     10 CA Baker, Bill (R)                1-202-225-1880   1-202-225-2150
     11 CA Pombo, Richard (R)             1-202-225-1947   1-202-226-0861
     12 CA Lantos, Thomas (D)             1-202-225-3531   1-202-225-3127
     13 CA Stark, Pete (D)                1-202-225-5065   na
     14 CA Eshoo, Anna G. (D)             1-202-225-8104   1-202-225-8890
     15 CA Mineta, Norman Y. (D)          1-202-225-2631   na
     16 CA Lofgren, Zoe (D)               1-202-225-3072   1-202-225-9460
     17 CA Farr, Sam  (D)                 1-202-225-2861
     18 CA Condit, Gary (D)               1-202-225-6131   1-202-225-0819
     19 CA Radanovich, George (R)         1-202-225-4540   1-202-225-0399
     20 CA Dooley, Calvin M. (D)          1-202-225-3341   1-202-225-9308
     21 CA Thomas, Bill (R)               1-202-225-2915   1-202-225-8798
     22 CA Seastrand, Andrea (R)          1-202-225-3601   1-202-226-1015
     23 CA Gallegly, Elton (R)            1-202-225-5811   1-202-225-1100
     24 CA Beilenson, Anthony (D)         1-202-225-5911   na
     25 CA McKeon, Howard P. (R)          1-202-225-1956   1-202-226-0683
     26 CA Berman, Howard L. (D)          1-202-225-4695   1-202-225-5279
     27 CA Moorhead, Carlos J. (R)        1-202-225-4176   1-202-226-1279
     28 CA Dreier, David (R)              1-202-225-2305   1-202-225-4745
     29 CA Waxman, Henry A. (D)           1-202-225-3976   1-202-225-4099
     30 CA Becerra, Xavier (D)            1-202-225-6235   1-202-225-2202
     31 CA Martinez, Matthew G. (D)       1-202-225-5464   1-202-225-4467
     32 CA Dixon, Julian C. (D)           1-202-225-7084   1-202-225-4091
     33 CA Roybal-Allard, Lucille (D)     1-202-225-1766   1-202-226-0350
     34 CA Torres, Esteban E. (D)         1-202-225-5256   1-202-225-9711
     35 CA Waters, Maxine (D)             1-202-225-2201   1-202-225-7854
     36 CA Harman, Jane (D)               1-202-225-8220   1-202-226-0684
     37 CA Tucker III, Walter R. (D)      1-202-225-7924   1-202-225-7926
     38 CA Horn, Steve (R)                1-202-225-6676   1-202-226-1012
     39 CA Royce, Ed (R)                  1-202-225-4111   1-202-226-0335
     40 CA Lewis, Jerry (R)               1-202-225-5861   1-202-225-6498
     41 CA Kim, Jay C. (R)                1-202-225-3201   1-202-226-1485
     42 CA Brown Jr., George E. (D)       1-202-225-6161   1-202-225-8671
     43 CA Calvert, Ken (R)               1-202-225-1986   na
     44 CA Bono, Sonny (R)                1-202-225-5330   1-202-226-1040
     45 CA Rohrabacher, Dana (R)          1-202-225-2415   1-202-225-7067
     46 CA Dornan, Robert K. (R)          1-202-225-2965   1-202-225-3694
     47 CA Cox, Christopher (R)           1-202-225-5611   1-202-225-9177
     48 CA Packard, Ronald (R)            1-202-225-3906   1-202-225-0134
     49 CA Bilbray, Brian (R)             1-202-225-2040   1-202-225-2042
     50 CA Filner, Bob (D)                1-202-225-8045   1-202-225-9073
     51 CA Cunningham, Randy (R)          1-202-225-5452   1-202-225-2558
     52 CA Hunter, Duncan L. (R)          1-202-225-5672   1-202-225-0235
      1 CO Schroeder, Patricia (D)        1-202-225-4431   1-202-225-5842
      2 CO Skaggs, David E. (D)           1-202-225-2161   1-202-225-9127
      3 CO McInnis, Scott (R)             1-202-225-4761   1-202-226-0622
      4 CO Allard, Wayne (R)              1-202-225-4676   1-202-225-8630
      5 CO Hefley, Joel (R)               1-202-225-4422   1-202-225-1942
      6 CO Schaefer, Daniel (R)           1-202-225-7882   1-202-225-7885
      1 CT Kennelly, Barbara B. (D)       1-202-225-2265   1-202-225-1031
      2 CT Gejdenson, Samuel (D)          1-202-225-2076   1-202-225-4977
      3 CT DeLauro, Rosa (D)              1-202-225-3661   1-202-225-4890
      4 CT Shays, Christopher (R)         1-202-225-5541   1-202-225-9629
      5 CT Franks, Gary (R)               1-202-225-3822   1-202-225-5085
      6 CT Johnson, Nancy L. (R)          1-202-225-4476   1-202-225-4488
        DC Norton, Eleanor Holmes (D)     1-202-225-8050   1-202-225-3002
        DE Castle, Michael N. (R)         1-202-225-4165   1-202-225-2291
      1 FL Scarborough, Joe (R)           1-202-225-4136   1-202-225-5785
      2 FL Peterson, Peter (D)            1-202-225-5235   1-202-225-1586
      3 FL Brown, Corrine (D)             1-202-225-0123   1-202-225-2256
      4 FL Fowler, Tillie (R)             1-202-225-2501   1-202-225-9318
      5 FL Thurman, Karen (D)             1-202-225-1002   1-202-226-0329
      6 FL Stearns, Clifford B. (R)       1-202-225-5744   1-202-225-3973
      7 FL Mica, John L. (R)              1-202-225-4035   1-202-226-0821
      8 FL McCollum, William (R)          1-202-225-2176   1-202-225-0999
      9 FL Bilirakis, Michael (R)         1-202-225-5755   1-202-225-4085
     10 FL Young, C. W. (R)               1-202-225-5961   1-202-225-9764
     11 FL Gibbons, Samuel M. (D)         1-202-225-3376   na
     12 FL Canady, Charles T. (R)         1-202-225-1252   1-202-225-2279
     13 FL Miller, Dan (R)                1-202-225-5015   1-202-226-0828
     14 FL Goss, Porter J. (R)            1-202-225-2536   1-202-225-6820
     15 FL Weldon, Dave (R)               1-202-225-3671   1-202-225-9039]
     16 FL Foley, Mark (R)                1-202-225-5792   na
     17 FL Meek, Carrie (D)               1-202-225-4506   1-202-226-0777
     18 FL Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana (R)       1-202-225-3931   1-202-225-5620
     19 FL Johnston II, Harry (D)         1-202-225-3001   1-202-225-8791
     20 FL Deutsch, Peter (D)             1-202-225-7931   1-202-225-8456
     21 FL Diaz-Balart, Lincoln (R)       1-202-225-4211   1-202-225-8576
     22 FL Shaw Jr., E. C. (R)            1-202-225-3026   1-202-225-8398
     23 FL Hastings, Alcee L. (D)         1-202-225-1313   1-202-225-0690
      1 GA Kingston, Jack (R)             1-202-225-5831   1-202-226-2269
      2 GA Bishop, Sanford (D)            1-202-225-3631   1-202-225-2203
      3 GA Collins, Mac (R)               1-202-225-5901   1-202-225-2515
      4 GA Linder, John (R)               1-202-225-4272   1-202-225-4696
      5 GA Lewis, John (D)                1-202-225-3801   1-202-225-0351
      6 GA Gingrich, Newt (R)             1-202-225-4501   1-202-225-4656
      7 GA Barr, Bob (R)                  1-202-225-2931
      8 GA Chambliss, Saxby               1-202-225-6531   1-202-225-7719
      9 GA Deal, Nathan (D)               1-202-225-5211   1-202-225-8272
     10 GA Norwood, Charles (R)           1-202-225-4101   1-202-226-1466
     11 GA McKinney, Cynthia (D)          1-202-225-1605   1-202-226-0691
        GU Underwood, Robert A. (D)       1-202-225-1188   1-202-226-0341
      1 HI Abercrombie, Neil (D)          1-202-225-2726   1-202-225-4580
      2 HI Mink, Patsy T. (D)             1-202-225-4906   1-202-225-4987
      1 IA Leach, James (R)               1-202-225-6576   1-202-226-1278
      2 IA Nussle, James Allen (R)        1-202-225-2911   1-202-225-9129
      3 IA Lightfoot, James R. (R)        1-202-225-3806   1-202-225-6973
      4 IA Ganske, Greg (R)               1-202-225-4426
      5 IA Latham, Tom (R)                1-202-225-5476   1-202-225-6929
      1 ID Chenoweth, Helen               1-202-225-6611   1-202-226-1213
      2 ID Crapo, Michael D. (R)          1-202-225-5531   1-202-225-8216
      1 IL Rush, Bobby L. (D)             1-202-225-4372   1-202-226-0333
      2 IL Reynolds, Mel (D)              1-202-225-0773   1-202-225-0774
      3 IL Lipinski, William O. (D)       1-202-225-5701   1-202-225-1012
      4 IL Gutierrez, Luis V. (D)         1-202-225-8203   1-202-225-7810
      5 IL Flanagan, Michael (R)          1-202-225-4061
      6 IL Hyde, Henry J. (R)             1-202-225-4561   1-202-226-1240
      7 IL Collins, Cardiss (D)           1-202-225-5006   1-202-225-8396
      8 IL Crane, Philip M. (R)           1-202-225-3711   1-202-225-7830
      9 IL Yates, Sidney R. (D)           1-202-225-2111   1-202-225-3493
     10 IL Porter, John E. (R)            1-202-225-4835   1-202-225-0157
     11 IL Weller, Gerald (R)             1-202-225-3635   1-202-225-4447
     12 IL Costello, Jerry F. (D)         1-202-225-5661   1-202-225-0285
     13 IL Fawell, Harris W. (R)          1-202-225-3515   1-202-225-9420
     14 IL Hastert, J. D. (R)             1-202-225-2976   1-202-225-0697
     15 IL Ewing, Thomas (R)              1-202-225-2371   1-202-225-8071
     16 IL Manzullo, Donald (R)           1-202-225-5676   1-202-225-5284
     17 IL Evans, Lane (D)                1-202-225-5905   1-202-225-5396
     18 IL LaHood, Ray (R)                1-202-225-6201   1-202-225-9461
     19 IL Poshard, Glenn (D)             1-202-225-5201   1-202-225-1541
     20 IL Durbin, Richard J. (D)         1-202-225-5271   1-202-225-0170
      1 IN Visclosky, Peter J. (D)        1-202-225-2461   1-202-225-2493
      2 IN McIntosh, David (R)            1-202-225-3021   1-202-225-8140
      3 IN Roemer, Timothy (D)            1-202-225-3915   1-202-225-6798
      4 IN Souder, Mark (R)               1-202-225-4436   1-202-225-8810
      5 IN Buyer, Steve (D)               1-202-225-5037   na
      6 IN Burton, Daniel (R)             1-202-225-2276   1-202-225-0016
      7 IN Myers, John T. (R)             1-202-225-5805   1-202-225-1649
      8 IN Hostettler, John (R)           1-202-225-4636   1-202-225-4688
      9 IN Hamilton, Lee H. (D)           1-202-225-5315   1-202-225-1101
     10 IN Jacobs Jr., Andrew (D)         1-202-225-4011   1-202-226-4093
      1 KS Roberts, Pat (R)               1-202-225-2715   1-202-225-5375
      2 KS Brownback, Sam (R)             1-202-225-6601   1-202-225-1445
      3 KS Meyers, Jan (R)                1-202-225-2865   1-202-225-0554
      4 KS Tiahrt, Todd (R)               1-202-225-6216   1-202-225-5398
      1 KY Whitfield, Edward (R)          1-202-225-3115   1-202-225-2169
      2 KY Lewis, Ron (R)                 1-202-225-3501   na
      3 KY Ward, Michael (D)              1-202-225-5401
      4 KY Bunning, James (R)             1-202-225-3465   1-202-225-0003
      5 KY Rogers, Harold (R)             1-202-225-4601   1-202-225-0940
      6 KY Baesler, Scotty (D)            1-202-225-4706   1-202-225-2122
      1 LA Livingston, Robert (R)         1-202-225-3015   1-202-225-0739
      2 LA Jefferson, William (D)         1-202-225-6636   1-202-225-1988
      3 LA Tauzin, W. J. (D)              1-202-225-4031   1-202-225-0563
      4 LA Fields, Cleo (D)               1-202-225-8490   1-202-225-8959
      5 LA McCrery, James (R)             1-202-225-2777   1-202-225-8039
      6 LA Baker, Richard H.(R)           1-202-225-3901   1-202-225-7313
      7 LA Hayes, James A. (D)            1-202-225-2031   1-202-225-1175
      1 MA Olver, John W. (D)             1-202-225-5335   1-202-226-1224
      2 MA Neal, Richard E. (D)           1-202-225-5601   1-202-225-8112
      3 MA Blute, Peter I. (R)            1-202-225-6101   1-202-225-2217
      4 MA Frank, Barney (D)              1-202-225-5931   1-202-225-0182
      5 MA Meehan, Martin T. (D)          1-202-225-3411   1-202-226-0771
      6 MA Torkildsen, Peter G. (R)       1-202-225-8020   1-202-225-8037
      7 MA Markey, Edward J. (D)          1-202-225-2836   1-202-225-8689
      8 MA Kennedy II, Joseph P. (D)      1-202-225-5111   1-202-225-9322
      9 MA Moakley, John Joseph (D)       1-202-225-8273   1-202-225-7304
     10 MA Studds, Gerry E. (D)           1-202-225-3111   1-202-225-2212
      1 MD Gilchrest, Wayne T. (R)        1-202-225-5311   1-202-225-0254
      2 MD Ehrlich, Jr., Robert (R)      1-202-225-3061    1-202-225-4251
      3 MD Cardin, Benjamin L. (D)        1-202-225-4016   1-202-225-9219
      4 MD Wynn, Albert R. (D)            1-202-225-8699   1-202-225-8714
      5 MD Hoyer, Steny H. (D)            1-202-225-4131   1-202-225-4300
      6 MD Bartlett, Roscoe G. (R)        1-202-225-2721   1-202-225-2193
      7 MD Mfume, Kweisi (D)              1-202-225-4741   1-202-225-3178
      8 MD Morella, Constance (R)         1-202-225-5341   1-202-225-1389
      1 ME Longley, James (R)            1-202-225-6116    1-202-225-9065
      2 ME Baldacci, John (D)            1-202-225-6306    1-202-225-8297
      1 MI Stupak, Bart (D)               1-202-225-4735   1-202-225-4744
      2 MI Hoekstra, Peter (R)            1-202-225-4401   1-202-226-0779
      3 MI Ehlers, Vern (R)               1-202-225-3831   1-202-225-5144
      4 MI Camp, David Lee (R)            1-202-225-3561   1-202-225-9679
      5 MI Barcia, James A. (D)           1-202-225-8171   1-202-225-2168
      6 MI Upton, Frederick S.(R)         1-202-225-3761   1-202-225-4986
      7 MI Smith, Nick (R)                1-202-225-6276   1-202-225-6281
      8 MI Chrysler, Dick (R)             1-202-225-4872   1-202-225-1260
      9 MI Kildee, Dale E. (D)            1-202-225-3611   1-202-225-6393
     10 MI Bonior, David E. (D)           1-202-225-2106   1-202-226-1169
     11 MI Knollenberg, Joe (R)           1-202-225-5802   1-202-226-2356
     12 MI Levin, Sander M. (D)           1-202-225-4961   1-202-226-1033
     13 MI Rivers, Lynn (D)               1-202-225-6261   1-202-225-0489
     14 MI Conyers Jr., John (D)          1-202-225-5126   1-202-225-0072
     15 MI Collins, Barbara Rose (D)      1-202-225-2261   1-202-225-6645
     16 MI Dingell, John D. (D)           1-202-225-4071   1-202-225-7426
      1 MN Gutknecht, Gilbert (R)         1-202-225-2472   1-202-225-0051
      2 MN Minge, David (D)               1-202-225-2331   1-202-226-0836
      3 MN Ramstad, James M. (D)          1-202-225-2871   1-202-225-6351
      4 MN Vento, Bruce F. (D)            1-202-225-6631   1-202-225-1968
      5 MN Sabo, Martin O. (D)            1-202-225-4755   1-202-225-4886
      6 MN Luther, William (D)            1-202-225-2271   1-202-225-9802
      7 MN Peterson, Collin C. (D)        1-202-225-2165   1-202-225-1593
      8 MN Oberstar, James L. (D)         1-202-225-6211   1-202-225-0699
      1 MO Clay, William L. (D)           1-202-225-2406   1-202-225-1725
      2 MO Talent, James M. (R)           1-202-225-2561   1-202-225-2563
      3 MO Gephardt, Richard A. (D)       1-202-225-2671   1-202-225-7452
      4 MO Skelton, Ike (D)               1-202-225-2876   1-202-225-2695
      5 MO McCarthy, Karen (D)            1-202-225-4535   1-202-225-5990
      6 MO Danner, Pat (D)                1-202-225-7041   1-202-225-8221
      7 MO Hancock, Melton D. (R)         1-202-225-6536   1-202-225-7700
      8 MO Emerson, Bill (R)              1-202-225-4404   1-202-225-9621
      9 MO Volkmer, Harold L. (D)         1-202-225-2956   1-202-225-7834
      1 MS Wicker, Roger (R)              1-202-225-4306   1-202-225-4328
      2 MS Thompson, Bennie G. (D)        1-202-225-5876   1-202-225-5898
      3 MS Montgomery, G. V. (D)          1-202-225-5031   1-202-225-3375
      4 MS Parker, Paul M. (D)            1-202-225-5865   1-202-225-5886
      5 MS Taylor, Gene (D)               1-202-225-5772   1-202-225-7074
        MT Williams, Pat (D)              1-202-225-3211   1-202-226-0244
      1 NC Clayton, Eva (D)               1-202-225-3101   1-202-225-3354
      2 NC Funderbunk, David (R)          1-202-225-4531   1-202-225-1539
      3 NC Jones, Walter (R)              1-202-225-3415   1-202-225-0666
      4 NC Heineman, Frederick (R)        1-202-225-1784   1-202-225-6314
      5 NC Burr, Richard (R)              1-202-225-2071   1-202-225-4060
      6 NC Coble, Howard (R)              1-202-225-3065   1-202-225-8611
      7 NC Rose, Charles  (D)             1-202-225-2731   1-202-225-2470
      8 NC Hefner, W. G. (D)              1-202-225-3715   1-202-225-4036
      9 NC Myrick, Sue (R)                1-202-225-1976   1-202-225-8995
     10 NC Ballenger, Thomas C. (R)       1-202-225-2576   1-202-225-0316
     11 NC Taylor, Charles Hart (R)       1-202-225-6401   1-202-251-0794
     12 NC Watt, Melvin  (D)              1-202-225-1510   1-202-225-1512
        ND Pomeroy, Earl (D)              1-202-225-2611   1-202-226-0893
      1 NE Bereuter, Douglas (R)          1-202-225-4806   1-202-226-1148
      2 NE Christensen, Jon (R)           1-202-225-4155   1-202-225-4684
      3 NE Barrett, William E. (R)        1-202-225-6435   1-202-225-0207
      1 NH Zeliff Jr., William (R)        1-202-225-5456   1-202-225-4370
      2 NH Bass, Charles (R)              1-202-225-5206   1-202-225-2946
      1 NJ Andrews, Robert E. (D)         1-202-225-6501   1-202-225-6583
      2 NJ LoBiondo, Frank (R)            1-202-225-6572   1-202-226-1108
      3 NJ Saxton, H. James (R)           1-202-225-4765   1-202-225-0778
      4 NJ Smith, Christopher (R)         1-202-225-3765   1-202-225-7768
      5 NJ Roukema, Marge (R)             1-202-225-4465   1-202-225-9048
      6 NJ Pallone Jr., Frank (D)         1-202-225-4671   1-202-225-9665
      7 NJ Franks, Bob (R)                1-202-225-5361   1-202-225-9460
      8 NJ Martini, Bill (R)              1-202-225-5751   1-202-226-2273
      9 NJ Torricelli, Robert (D)         1-202-224-5061   1-202-225-0843
     10 NJ Payne, Donald M. (D)           1-202-225-3436   1-202-225-4160
     11 NJ Frelinghuysen, Rodney (R)      1-202-225-5034   1-202-225-0658
     12 NJ Zimmer, Richard A. (R)         1-202-225-5801   1-202-225-9181
     13 NJ Menendez, Robert (D)           1-202-225-7919   1-202-226-0792
      1 NM Schiff, Steven H. (R)          1-202-225-6316   1-202-225-4975
      2 NM Skeen, Joseph (R)              1-202-225-2365   1-202-225-9599
      3 NM Richardson, William (D)        1-202-225-6190   1-202-225-1950
      1 NV Ensign, John (R)               1-202-225-5965   1-202-225-8808
      2 NV Vucanovich, Barbara (R)        1-202-225-6155   1-202-225-2319
      1 NY Forbes, Michael                1-202-225-3826   1-202-225-0776
      2 NY Lazio, Rick A. (R)             1-202-225-3335   1-202-225-4669
      3 NY King, Peter T. (R)             1-202-225-7896   1-202-226-2279
      4 NY Frisa, Daniel (R)              1-202-225-5516   1-202-225-4672
      5 NY Ackerman, Gary L. (D)          1-202-225-2601   1-202-225-1589
      6 NY Flake, Floyd H. (D)            1-202-225-3461   1-202-226-4169
      7 NY Manton, Thomas J. (D)          1-202-225-3965   1-202-225-1909
      8 NY Nadler, Jerrold (D)            1-202-225-5635   1-202-225-6923
      9 NY Schumer, Charles E. (D)        1-202-225-6616   1-202-225-4183
     10 NY Towns, Edolphus (D)            1-202-225-5936   1-202-225-1018
     11 NY Owens, Major R. (D)            1-202-225-6231   1-202-226-0112
     12 NY Velazquez, Nydia M. (D)        1-202-225-2361   1-202-226-0327
     13 NY Molinari, Susan (R)            1-202-225-3371   1-202-226-1272
     14 NY Maloney, Carolyn B. (D)        1-202-225-7944   1-202-225-4709
     15 NY Rangel, Charles B. (D)         1-202-225-4365   1-202-225-0816
     16 NY Serrano, Jose E. (D)           1-202-225-4361   1-202-225-6001
     17 NY Engel, Eliot L. (D)            1-202-225-2464   1-202-225-5513
     18 NY Lowey, Nita M. (D)             1-202-225-6506   1-202-225-0546
     19 NY Kelly, Sue (R)                 1-202-225-5441   1-202-225-0962
     20 NY Gilman, Benjamin A. (R)        1-202-225-3776   1-202-225-2541
     21 NY McNulty, Michael R. (D)        1-202-225-5076   1-202-225-5077
     22 NY Solomon, Gerald B. (R)         1-202-225-5614   1-202-225-1168
     23 NY Boehlert, Sherwood (R)         1-202-225-3665   1-202-225-1891
     24 NY McHugh, John M. (R)            1-202-225-4611   1-202-226-0621
     25 NY Walsh, James T. (R)            1-202-225-3701   1-202-225-4042
     26 NY Hinchey, Maurice D. (D)        1-202-225-6335   1-202-226-0774
     27 NY Paxon, Bill                    1-202-225-5265   1-202-225-5910
     28 NY Slaughter, Louise M. (D)       1-202-225-3615   1-202-225-7822
     29 NY LaFalce, John J. (D)           1-202-225-3231   1-202-225-8693
     30 NY Quinn, Jack  (R)               1-202-225-3306   1-202-226-0347
     31 NY Houghton, Amory (R)            1-202-225-3161   1-202-225-5574
      1 OH Chabot, Steve (R)              1-202-225-2216
      2 OH Portman, Rob (R)               1-202-225-3164
      3 OH Hall, Tony P. (D)              1-202-225-6465   1-202-225-6766
      4 OH Oxley, Michael G. (R)          1-202-225-2676   1-202-226-1160
      5 OH Gillmor, Paul E. (R)           1-202-225-6405   1-202-225-1985
      6 OH Cremeans, Frank (R)            1-202-225-5705   1-202-226-0331
      7 OH Hobson, David L. (R)           1-202-225-4324   1-202-225-1984
      8 OH Boehner, John Andrew (R)       1-202-225-6205   1-202-225-0704
      9 OH Kaptur, Marcy (D)              1-202-225-4146   1-202-225-7711
     10 OH Hoke, Martin R. (R)            1-202-225-5871   1-202-226-0994
     11 OH Stokes, Louis (D)              1-202-225-7032   1-202-225-1339
     12 OH Kasich, John R. (R)            1-202-225-5355   na
     13 OH Brown, Sherrod (D)             1-202-225-3401   1-202-225-2266
     14 OH Sawyer, Thomas C. (D)          1-202-225-5231   1-202-225-5278
     15 OH Pryce, Deborah (R)             1-202-225-2015   1-202-226-0986
     16 OH Regula, Ralph (R)              1-202-225-3876   1-202-225-3059
     17 OH Traficant Jr., James (D)       1-202-225-5261   1-202-225-3719
     18 OH Ney, Bob (R)                   1-202-225-6265   1-202-225-3087
     19 OH LaTourette, Steven (R)         1-202-225-5731   1-202-225-9114
      1 OK Largent, Steve (R)             1-202-225-2211   1-202-225-9187
      2 OK Coburn, Tom (R)                1-202-225-2701   1-202-225-2796
      3 OK Brewster, Billy Kent (D)       1-202-225-4565   1-202-225-9029
      4 OK Watts, J.C. (R)                1-202-225-6165   1-202-225-9746
      5 OK Istook, Ernest Jim (R)         1-202-225-2132   1-202-226-1463
      6 OK Lucas, Frank (R)               1-202-225-5565   1-202-225-8698
      1 OR Furse, Elizabeth (D)           1-202-225-0855   1-202-225-9497
      2 OR Cooley, Wes (R)                1-202-225-6730   1-202-225-3129
      3 OR Wyden, Ronald (D)              1-202-225-4811   1-202-225-8941
      4 OR DeFazio, Peter A. (D)          1-202-225-6416   1-202-225-0694
      5 OR Bunn, Jim (R)                  1-202-225-5711   1-202-225-9477
      1 PA Foglietta, Thomas M. (D)       1-202-225-4731   1-202-225-0088
      2 PA Fattah, Chaka (D)              1-202-225-4001   1-202-225-7362
      3 PA Borski, Robert A. (D)          1-202-225-8251   1-202-225-4628
      4 PA Klink, Ron (D)                 1-202-225-2565   1-202-226-2274
      5 PA Clinger Jr., William (R)       1-202-225-5121   1-202-225-4681
      6 PA Holden, Tim (D)                1-202-225-5546   1-202-226-0996
      7 PA Weldon, Curt (R)               1-202-225-2011   1-202-225-8137
      8 PA Greenwood, Jim (R)             1-202-225-4276   1-202-225-9511
      9 PA Shuster, Bud (R)               1-202-225-2431   1-202-225-2486
     10 PA McDade, Joseph M. (R)          1-202-225-3731   1-202-225-9594
     11 PA Kanjorski, Paul E. (D)         1-202-225-6511   1-202-225-9024
     12 PA Murtha, John P. (D)            1-202-225-2065   1-202-225-5709
     13 PA Fox, Jon (R)                   1-202-225-6111   1-202-226-0798
     14 PA Coyne, William J. (D)          1-202-225-2301   1-202-225-1844
     15 PA McHale, Paul (D)               1-202-225-6411   1-202-225-5320
     16 PA Walker, Robert S. (R)          1-202-225-2411   1-202-225-2484
     17 PA Gekas, George W. (R)           1-202-225-4315   1-202-225-8440
     18 PA Doyle, Mike (D)                1-202-225-2135   1-202-225-7747
     19 PA Goodling, William F. (R)       1-202-225-5836   1-202-226-1000
     20 PA Mascara, Frank (D)             1-202-225-4665   1-202-225-4772
     21 PA English, Phil (R)              1-202-225-5406   1-202-225-1081
        PR Romero-Barcelo, Carlos (D)     1-202-225-2615   1-202-225-2154
      1 RI Kennedy, Patrick (D)           1-202-225-4911   1-202-225-4417
      2 RI Reed, JOHN F. (D)              1-202-225-2735   1-202-225-9580
      1 SC Sanford, Mark (R)              1-202-225-3176   1-202-225-4340
      2 SC Spence, Floyd  (R)             1-202-225-2452   1-202-225-2455
      3 SC Graham, Lindsey (R)            1-202-225-5301   1-202-225-5383
      4 SC Inglis, Bob (R)                1-202-225-6030   1-202-226-1177
      5 SC Spratt Jr., John M. (D)        1-202-225-5501   1-202-225-0464
      6 SC Clyburn, James E. (D)          1-202-225-3315   1-202-225-2302
        SD Johnson, Timothy P. (D)        1-202-225-2801   1-202-225-2427
      1 TN Quillen, James H. (R)          1-202-225-6356   1-202-225-7812
      2 TN Duncan Jr., John J. (R)        1-202-225-5435   1-202-225-6440
      3 TN Wamp, Zach (R)                 1-202-225-3271   1-202-225-6974
      4 TN Hilleary, Van (R)              1-202-225-6831   1-202-225-4520
      5 TN Clement, Robert (D)            1-202-225-4311   1-202-226-1035
      6 TN Gordon, Bart (D)               1-202-225-4231   1-202-225-6887
      7 TN Bryant, Ed (R)                 1-202-225-2811   1-202-225-2814
      8 TN Tanner, John S. (D)            1-202-225-4714   1-202-225-1765
      9 TN Ford, Harold E. (D)            1-202-225-3265   1-202-225-9215
      1 TX Chapman, Jim (D)               1-202-225-3035   1-202-225-7265
      2 TX Wilson, Charles (D)            1-202-225-2401   1-202-225-1764
      3 TX Johnson, Sam (R)               1-202-225-4201   1-202-225-1485
      4 TX Hall, Ralph M. (D)             1-202-225-6673   1-202-225-3332
      5 TX Bryant, John (D)               1-202-225-2231   1-202-225-9721
      6 TX Barton, Joseph (R)             1-202-225-2002   1-202-225-3052
      7 TX Archer, William (R)            1-202-225-2571   1-202-225-4381
      8 TX Fields, Jack (R)               1-202-225-4901   1-202-225-2772
      9 TX Stockman, Steve (R)            1-202-225-6565   1-202-225-1584
     10 TX Doggett, Lloyd (D)             1-202-225-4865   1-202-225-3018
     11 TX Edwards, Chet (D)              1-202-225-6105   1-202-225-0350
     12 TX Geren, Peter (D)               1-202-225-5071   1-202-225-2786
     13 TX Thornberry, William (R)        1-202-225-3706   1-202-225-6142
     14 TX Laughlin, Gregory H. (D)       1-202-225-2831   1-202-225-1108
     15 TX de la Garza, E. (D)            1-202-225-2531   1-202-225-2534
     16 TX Coleman, Ronald D. (D)         1-202-225-4831   na
     17 TX Stenholm, Charles W. (D)       1-202-225-6605   1-202-225-2234
     18 TX Jackson-Lee, Sheila (D)        1-202-225-3816
     19 TX Combest, Larry (R)             1-202-225-4005   1-202-225-9615
     20 TX Gonzalez, Henry B. (D)         1-202-225-3236   1-202-225-1915
     21 TX Smith, Lamar S. (R)            1-202-225-4236   1-202-225-8628
     22 TX DeLay, Thomas (R)              1-202-225-5951   1-202-225-5241
     23 TX Bonilla, Henry (R)             1-202-225-4511   1-202-225-2237
     24 TX Frost, Martin (D)              1-202-225-3605   1-202-225-4951
     25 TX Bentsen, Ken (D)               1-202-225-7508   1-202-225-4210
     26 TX Armey, Richard K. (R)          1-202-225-7772   1-202-225-7614
     27 TX Ortiz, Solomon P. (D)          1-202-225-7742   1-202-226-1134
     28 TX Tejeda, Frank (D)              1-202-225-1640   1-202-225-1641
     29 TX Green, Gene (D)                1-202-225-1688   1-202-225-9903
     30 TX Johnson, Eddie Bernice (D)     1-202-225-8885   1-202-226-1477
      1 UT Hansen, James V. (R)           1-202-225-0453   1-202-225-5857
      2 UT Waldholtz, Enid (R)            1-202-225-3011   1-202-226-0354
      3 UT Orton, William H. (D)          1-202-225-7751   1-202-226-1223
      1 VA Bateman, Herbert H. (R)        1-202-225-4261   1-202-225-4382
      2 VA Pickett, Owen B. (D)           1-202-225-4215   1-202-225-4218
      3 VA Scott, Robert C. (D)           1-202-225-8351   1-202-225-8354
      4 VA Sisisky, Norman (D)            1-202-225-6365   1-202-226-1170
      5 VA Payne Jr., Lewis F. (D)        1-202-225-4711   1-202-226-1147
      6 VA Goodlatte, Robert W. (R)       1-202-225-5431   1-202-225-9681
      7 VA Bliley Jr., Thomas J. (R)      1-202-225-2815   1-202-225-0011
      8 VA Moran Jr., James P. (D)        1-202-225-4376   1-202-225-0017
      9 VA Boucher, Rick (D)              1-202-225-3861   1-202-225-0442
     10 VA Wolf, Frank R. (R)             1-202-225-5136   1-202-225-0437
     11 VA Davis, Thomas (R)              1-202-225-1492   1-202-225-2274
        VI Frazer, Victor                 1-202-225-1790   1-202-225-9392
        VT Sanders, Bernard (I)           1-202-225-4115   1-202-225-6790
      1 WA White, Rick (R)                1-202-225-6311   1-202-225-2286
      2 WA Metcalf, Jack (R)              1-202-225-2605   1-202-225-2608
      3 WA Smith, Linda (R)               1-202-225-3536   1-202-225-9095
      4 WA Hastings, Doc (R)              1-202-225-5816   1-202-226-1137
      5 WA Nethercutt, George (R)         1-202-225-2006   1-202-225-7181
      6 WA Dicks, Norman D. (D)           1-202-225-5916   1-202-226-1176
      7 WA McDermott, James A. (D)        1-202-225-3106   1-202-225-9212
      8 WA Dunn, Jennifer (R)             1-202-225-7761   1-202-225-8673
      9 WA Tate, Randy (R)                1-202-225-8901   1-202-226-2361
      1 WI Neumann, Mark (R)              1-202-225-3031
      2 WI Klug, Scott (R)                1-202-225-2906   1-202-225-6942
      3 WI Gunderson, Steve (R)           1-202-225-5506   1-202-225-6195
      4 WI Kleczka, Gerald D. (D)         1-202-225-4572   1-202-225-8135
      5 WI Barrett, Thomas M. (D)         1-202-225-3571   1-202-225-2185
      6 WI Petri, Thomas E. (R)           1-202-225-2476   1-202-225-2356
      7 WI Obey, David R. (D)             1-202-225-3365   1-202-225-0561
      8 WI Roth, Toby (R)                 1-202-225-5665   1-202-225-0087
      9 WI Sensenbrenner, F. J. (R)       1-202-225-5101   1-202-225-3190
      1 WV Mollohan, Alan B. (D)          1-202-225-4172   1-202-225-7564
      2 WV Wise Jr., Robert E. (D)        1-202-225-2711   1-202-225-7856
      3 WV Rahall II, Nick Joe (D)        1-202-225-3452   1-202-225-9061
        WY Cubin, Barbara (R)             1-202-225-2311   1-202-225-0726


	End Alert


Subject: EFF Analysis of the "Anti-Electronic Racketeering Act" (S.974)


On June 27, Senator Charles Grassley (R-IA) introduced the Anti-Electronic
Racketeering Act, S.974.  The bill was designed "to prohibit certain acts
involving the use of computers in the furtherance of crimes, and for other
purposes."  Its immediate effect, among other things, would be to
criminalize the posting of any encryption software on any computer network,
that foreign nationals can access (in other words, any computer network
period).  Because of poor wording, the bill would probably also criminalize
data compression and other non-cryptographic encoding schemes available on 
networks.  This includes the compression used in most of the images on 
Internet users' WWW homepages, not to mention uuencoding, binhex, MIME and 
other encoding methods for transferring binary files via email, and even 
language encoding used to represent non-English characters, such as the 
SJIS scheme for representing Japanese Kanji characters.

In addition, the bill seems to be directed at undermining two big fights
we've successfully waged in the past:  the Steve Jackson Games decision
against the United States Secret Service and the government's Clipper Chip

Re:  Steve Jackson Games -- this bill would permit the government to avoid
the notice requirements of the Privacy Protection Act if "there is reason
to believe that the immediate seizure of such materials is necessary to
prevent the destruction or altercation [very Freudian sic!] of such
documents."  Furthermore, the government could use electronic evidence
seized that had not been particularly described in a warrant if:

"the seizure is incidental to an otherwise valid seizure, and the
government officer or employee-

   ''(A) was not aware that work product material was among the data seized;

   ''(B) upon actual discovery of the existence of work product materials, the
government officer or employee took reasonable steps to protect the privacy
interests recognized by this section, including-

   ''(i) using utility software to seek and identify electronically stored data
that may be commingled or combined with non-work product material; and

   ''(ii) upon actual identification of such material, taking reasonable steps
to protect the privacy of the material, including seeking a search warrant."  

Re:  Clipper Chip -- The bill would make it a crime "to distribute computer
software that encodes or encrypts electronic or digital communications to
computer networks that the person distributing the software knows or
reasonably should know, is accessible to foreign nationals and foreign
governments, regardless of whether such software has been designated as
nonexportable."  However, there is an exception:  "It shall be an
affirmative defense to prosecution under this section that the software at
issue used a universal decoding device or program that was provided to the
Department of Justice prior to the distribution."  This is essentially an
attempt to sneak the key "escrow" provisions of the Clipper scheme in
through a legislative back door.

Fortunately, the bill does not have a very promising future.  The bill has
no co-sponsors.  It was immediately referred to the Committee on the
Judiciary, where it currently sits.  LEXIS's bill tracking report only
gives it a 10% chance of passing out of the committee.

We thought Senator Grassley's own statement when he introduced the bill is
worth reading, so we attach it here.  Our favorite line is "Elliott Ness
needs to meet the Internet."  This is especially ironic in light of recent 
comparisons of hysteria about "dangerous" material on the internet, and 
the Prohibition.

The bill itself follows Grassley's statement.


Subject: Sen. Grassley's Statement to the Senate on S.974

   Mr. President, I rise this evening to introduce the Anti-electronic
Racketeering Act of 1995. This bill makes important changes to RICO and
criminalizes deliberately using computer technology to engage in criminal
activity. I believe this bill is a reasonable, measured and strong response
to a growing problem.  According to the computer emergency and response
team at Carnegie-Mellon University, during 1994, about 40,000 computer
users were attacked. Virus hacker, the FBI's national computer crime squad
has investigated over 200 cases since 1991. So, computer crime is clearly
on the rise.

   Mr. President, I suppose that some of this is just natural. Whenever man
develops a new technology, that technology will be abused by some. And that is
why I have introduced this bill. I believe we need to seriously reconsider the
Federal Criminal Code with an eye toward modernizing existing statutes and
creating new ones. In other words, Mr. President, Elliot Ness needs to meet the

   Mr. President, I sit on the Board of the Office of Technology Assessment.
That Office has clearly indicated that organized crime has entered cyberspace in
a big way. International drug cartels use computers to launder drug money and
terrorists like the Oklahoma City bombers use computers to conspire to commit

   Computer fraud accounts for the loss of millions of dollars per year. And
often times, there is little that can be done about this because the computer
used to commit the crimes is located overseas. So, under my bill, overseas
computer users who employ their computers to commit fraud in the United States
would be fully subject to the Federal criminal laws.  Also under my bill, Mr.
President, the wire fraud statute which has been successfully used by
prosecutors for many users, will be amended to make fraudulent schemes which use
computers a crime.

   It is not enough to simply modernize the Criminal Code. We also have to
reconsider many of the difficult procedural burdens that prosecutors must
overcome. For instance, in the typical case, prosecutors must identify a
location in order to get a wiretapping order. But in cyberspace, it is often
impossible to determine the location. And so my bill corrects that so that if
prosecutors cannot, with the exercise of effort, give the court a location, then
those prosecutors can still get a wiretapping order. And for law enforcers-both
State and Federal-who have seized a computer which contains both contraband or
evidence and purely private material, I have created a good-faith standard so
that law enforcers are not shackled by undue restrictions but will also be
punished for bad faith.

   Mr. President, this brave new world of electronic communications and global
computer networks holds much promise. But like almost anything, there is the
potential for abuse and harm. That is why I urge my colleagues to support this
bill and that is why I urge industry to support this bill.

   On a final note, I would say that we should not be too scared of technology.
After all, we are still just people and right is still right and wrong is still
wrong. Some things change and some things do not. All that my bill does is say
you can't use computers to steal, to threaten others or conceal criminal

   Mr. President, I ask unanimous consent that the text of the bill be printed
in the Record.

   There being no objection, the bill was ordered to be printed in the Record,
as follows:


Subject: The Anti-Electronic Racketeering Act of 1995, Senate Bill S.974

   S. 974


   This Act may be cited as the ''Anti-Electronic Racketeering Act of 1995''.


   (a) Definitions .-Section 1961(1) of title 18, United States Code, is

   (1) by striking ''1343 (relating to wire fraud)'' and inserting ''1343
(relating to wire and computer fraud)'';

   (2) by striking ''that title'' and inserting ''this title'';

   (3) by striking ''or (E)'' and inserting ''(E)''; and

   (4) by inserting before the semicolon the following: ''or (F) any act that is
indictable under section 1030, 1030A, or 1962(d)(2)''.

   (b) Use of Computer To Facilitate Racketeering Enterprise .-Section 1962 of
title 18, United States Code, is amended-

   (1) by redesignating subsection (d) as subsection (e); and

   (2) by inserting after subsection (c) the following new subsection:

   ''(d) It shall be unlawful for any person-

   ''(1) to use any computer or computer network in furtherance of a
racketeering activity (as defined in section 1961(1)); or

   ''(2) to damage or threaten to damage electronically or digitally stored

   (c) Criminal Penalties .-Section 1963(b) of title 18, United States Code, is

   (1) by striking ''and'' at the end of paragraph (1);

   (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (2) and inserting '';
and''; and

   (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

   ''(3) electronically or digitally stored data.''.

   (d) Civil Remedies .-Section 1964(c) of title 18, United States Code, is
amended by striking ''his property or business''.   [*S9181]  

   (e) Use as Evidence of Intercepted Wire or Oral Communications .-Section 2515
of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting before the period at
the end the following: '', unless the authority in possession of the intercepted
communication attempted in good faith to comply with this chapter. If the United
States or any State of the United States, or subdivision thereof, possesses a
communication intercepted by a nongovernmental actor, without the knowledge of
the United States, that State, or that subdivision, the communication may be
introduced into evidence''.

   (f) Authorization for Interception of Wire, Oral, or Electronic
Communications .-Section 2516(1) of title 18, United States Code, is amended-

   (1) by striking ''and'' at the end of paragraph (n);

   (2) by striking the period at the end of paragraph () and inserting '';
and''; and

   (3) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

   ''(p) any violation of section 1962 of title 18.''.

   (g) Procedures for Interception .-Section 2518(4)(b) of title 18, United
States Code, is amended by inserting before the semicolon the following: ''to
the extent feasible''.

   (h) Computer Crimes .-

   (1) New prohibited activities .-Chapter 47 of title 18, United States Code,
is amended by adding at the end the following new section:

   '' 1A1030A. Racketeering-related crimes involving computers

   ''(a) It shall be unlawful-

   ''(1) to use a computer or computer network to transfer unlicensed computer
software, regardless of whether the transfer is performed for economic

   ''(2) to distribute computer software that encodes or encrypts electronic or
digital communications to computer networks that the person distributing the
software knows or reasonably should know, is accessible to foreign nationals and
foreign governments, regardless of whether such software has been designated as
nonexportable; and

   ''(3) to use a computer or computer network to transmit a communication
intended to conceal or hide the origin of money or other assets, tangible or
intangible, that were derived from racketeering activity; and

   ''(4) to operate a computer or computer network primarily to facilitate
racketeering activity or primarily to engage in conduct prohibited by Federal or
State law.

   ''(b) For purposes of this section, each act of distributing software is
considered a separate predicate act. Each instance in which nonexportable
software is accessed by a foreign government, an agent of a foreign government,
a foreign national, or an agent of a foreign national, shall be considered as a
separate predicate act.

   ''(c) It shall be an affirmative defense to prosecution under this section
that the software at issue used a universal decoding device or program that was
provided to the Department of Justice prior to the distribution.''.

   (2) Clerical amendment .-The analysis at the beginning of chapter 47, United
States Code, is amended by adding at the end the following new item:

   ''1030A. Racketeering-related crimes involving computers.''.

   (3) Jurisdiction and venue .-Section 1030 of title 18, United States Code, is
amended by adding at the end the following new subsection:

   ''(g)(1)(A) Any act prohibited by this section that is committed using any
computer, computer facility, or computer network that is physically located
within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States shall be deemed to have
been committed within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States.

   ''(B) Any action taken in furtherance of an act described in subparagraph (A)
shall be deemed to have been committed in the territorial jurisdiction of the
United States.

   ''(2) In any prosecution under this section involving acts deemed to be
committed within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States under this
subsection, venue shall be proper where the computer, computer facility, or
computer network was physically situated at the time at least one of the
wrongful acts was committed.''.

   (i) Wire and Computer Fraud .-Section 1343 of title 18, United States Code,
is amended by striking ''or television communication'' and inserting
''television communication, or computer network or facility''.

   (j) Privacy Protection Act .-Section 101 of the Privacy Protection Act of
1980 (42 U.S.C. 2000aa) is amended-

   (1) in subsection (a)-

   (A) by striking ''or'' at the end of paragraph (1);

   (B) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (2) and inserting '';
or''; and

   (C) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

   ''(3) there is reason to believe that the immediate seizure of such materials
is necessary to prevent the destruction or altercation of such documents.''; and

   (2) in subsection (b)-

   (A) by striking ''or'' at the end of paragraph (3);

   (B) by striking the period at the end of paragraph (4) and inserting '';
or''; and

   (C) by adding at the end the following new paragraph:

   ''(5) in the case of electronically stored data, the seizure is incidental to
an otherwise valid seizure, and the government officer or employee-

   ''(A) was not aware that work product material was among the data seized;

   ''(B) upon actual discovery of the existence of work product materials, the
government officer or employee took reasonable steps to protect the privacy
interests recognized by this section, including-

   ''(i) using utility software to seek and identify electronically stored data
that may be commingled or combined with non-work product material; and

   ''(ii) upon actual identification of such material, taking reasonable steps
to protect the privacy of the material, including seeking a search warrant.''.  



Subject: EFF and Others Thank 16 Senators for Voting Against the CDA

[Letter sent to the 16 Senators who voted against the Communications 
Decency Act.]

Dear Senator:

The undersigned organizations and individuals thank you for voting
against the Exon/Gorton amendment that would censor electronic
networks.  Only 16 of you upheld both the Constitution and the will of
the people (as clearly expressed through letters, phone calls, and
petitions) in opposing the amendment.  We will do whatever we can to
make the public remember your principles and your courage.

You understand that the censorship issue goes beyond the question of
whether a child sees a picture that is in bad taste.  You know that
censorship ends up suppressing what is good, valuable, and sometimes
critical to public policy-making.  Let us hope that the House of
Representatives is more open to this view.

We believe that electronic networks should allow all constitutionally-
protected forms of expression, that the commercial organization of the 
media should encourage a wide range of content providers, and that the 
privacy of online users should be diligently safeguarded.  Standards of 
propriety (which differ from community to community, and from individual 
to individual) should remain an individual decision on a medium like the 
Internet, which is truly the first expression of the emerging Global 
Information Infrastructure. When governments try to dictate content, we 
risk choking the life out of these vital communication, educational, and 
knowledge tools.

Finally, we applaud the Internet as a forum where people can defend free
speech in other media, and can organize to protect the civil rights of
everyone.  Attacks on the Internet could well be preludes to attacks
on these broader values.


* Organizations
Electronic Frontier Foundation
Electronic Frontier Canada
Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
Voters Telecommunications Watch
Center for Information, Technology, & Society
Libertarian Party
National Writers Union - UAW Local 1981
Marijuana Policy Project
Florida Coalition Against Censorship

* Individuals (organizations listed for identification purposes only)
Robert Abrazado
Michael Brownstein, IXA Inc.
Gordon Cook, Editor & Publisher, The COOK Report on Internet -> NREN
Brennon Martin, Network 99/IXA/Semaphore Internet Services 
Arun Mehta, Forum for Rights to Electronic Expression (India)
Nathan Newman, co-chair, UC-Berkeley Center for Community Economic Research
Bob Pauls, Exec. Director, Shawnee Free-Net, Inc.
Bob Powell
Joe Shea, Editor-in-Chief, The American Reporter
Paul J. Ste. Marie
Jim Warren, GovAccess moderator and columnist for Government Technology,
	BoardWatch, MicroTimes and other periodicals

* Senators who received the letter

      P ST Name
      = == ==================
      D CT Lieberman, Joseph I.
      D DE Biden Jr., Joseph R.
      D IL Simon, Paul
      D IL Moseley-Braun, Carol
      D MA Kennedy, Edward M.
      D MI Levin, Carl
      D MN Wellstone, Paul
      D NM Bingaman, Jeff
      D NY Moynihan, Daniel P.
      D OH Glenn, John
      R RI Chafee, John H.
      D VA Robb, Charles S.
      D VT Leahy, Patrick J.
      R VT Jeffords, James M.
      D WA Murray, Patty
      D WI Feingold, Russell


Subject: What YOU Can Do

* The Communications Decency Act

The Communications Decency Act poses serious threats to freedom of
expression online, and to the livelihoods of system operators.  The
legislation also undermines several crucial privacy protections.

Business/industry persons concerned should alert their corporate govt.
affairs office and/or legal counsel.  Everyone should write to their own
Representatives and ask them to support Rep. Klink's alternative 
legislation, already folded into the House telecom reform bill, and 
ask their legislators to oppose any efforts to remove the Klink 
language from the bill and replace it with the CDA or similar 
censorship legislation.  Explain, quickly and clearly, why the CDA is 
dangerous, and urge efforts to prevent its introduction in any form.

For more information on what you can do to help stop this and other 
dangerous legislation, see:, /pub/Alerts/, 1/Alerts

If you do not have full internet access, send your request
for information to

* The Anti-Electronic Racketeering Act

This bill is unlikely to pass in any form, being very poorly drafted, and 
without support.  However, the CDA is just as bad and passed with flying 
colors [the jolly roger?] in the Senate. It's better to be safe than sorry.
If you have a few moments to spare, writing to, faxing, or calling your
Congresspersons to urge opposition to this bill is a good idea. If you 
only have time to do limited activism, please concentrate on the CDA instead.
That legislation is far more imminent that the AERA.

* Find Out Who Your Congresspersons Are

Writing letters to, faxing, and phoning your representatives in Congress
is one very important strategy of activism, and an essential way of
making sure YOUR voice is heard on vital issues.

EFF has lists of the Senate and House with contact information, as well
as lists of Congressional committees. (A House list is included in this
issue of EFFector). These lists are available at:, /pub/Activism/Congress_cmtes/, 1/EFF/Issues/Activism/Congress_cmtes

The full Senate and House lists are senate.list and hr.list, respectively.
Those not in the U.S. should seek out similar information about their
own legislative bodies.  EFF will be happy to archive any such
information provided.

If you are having difficulty determining who your Representatives are,
try contacting your local League of Women Voters, who maintain a great 
deal of legislative information.

* Join EFF!

You *know* privacy, freedom of speech and ability to make your voice heard
in government are important. You have probably participated in our online
campaigns and forums.  Have you become a member of EFF yet?  The best way to
protect your online rights is to be fully informed and to make your
opinions heard.  EFF members are informed and are making a difference.  Join
EFF today!

For EFF membership info, send queries to, or send any
message to for basic EFF info, and a membership form.



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