Encryption software encodes messages so they can be read only by the intended recipient. That should be "the default for online communication," said Rainey Reitman with the Electronic Frontier Foundation in San Francisco. EFF is a civil liberties group that focuses on the digital world.
Currently most privacy software is simply too complex for most consumers to easily use. Snowden referenced Tor in his talk. It is software and a network that allows users to browse without anyone being able to see what sites they have visited.
Another popular program is PGP, which allows individuals to encrypt their e-mail. but it's difficult to use. "Expecting hundreds of millions of people to use PGP is not the answer," Reitman said.