The investigative technique known as National Security Letters (NSLs) was greatly expanded under the USA PATRIOT Act, allowing the FBI to obtain telephone, Internet, financial, credit, and other personal records of anyone associated with an authorized terrorism or espionage investigation. These orders, issued without a court's approval, come with a gag order, preventing recipients of such letters from discussing the NSL publicly and thus limiting opportunity for public oversight of this expansive power. In the wake of the Department of Justice's inspector general report confirming extensive misuse of NSLs, EFF began litigation seeking information about the FBI's abuse of this power. Through EFF's lawsuits, we were able to obtain thousands of pages of documents over several years showcasing the scope and, often, repeated abuse of the NSL authority. An EFF report based on these documents led to tough questions for the FBI before Congress. The documents also helped prompt the Senate Judiciary Committee to investigate whether Attorney General Alberto Gonzales lied to Congress. After months of ongoing controversy, Gonzales resigned from his position as head of the Justice Department.